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Spiralling Population Woes

There is urgent need to address burgeoning populations, especially in underdeveloped countries

Spiralling Population Woes

Sentinel Digital Desk

ENVIRONMENT


The Anthropocene epoch is a new geologic era that has been designated by some scientists as a result of the effect that the presence of so many people has had on the earth. The human race represents a new geophysical force on a global scale.


What is population growth and what are its causes?

The term "population growth" refers to the process by which a given population grows in size. Various factors and causes contribute to the dramatic increase in population. This includes a rise in the birth rate which is on the rise.

Also, the gap between mortality and reproduction is much larger than we can even begin to fathom. In addition, the birth rate has increased by many multiples over the death rate.

The second factor is a decline in infant mortality.The term "infant mortality" is used to describe the rate at which new-borns are lost before their first birthday. Due to advances in medical research and technology, this rate has been reduced to a few cases per thousand fatalities.

Third, the improvement in life expectancy; previously, people could expect to live for 55–65 years. Modernised clinical settings have put us in a position to shape people's tomorrows. The median age of a human being has increased to between 70 and 75 years today. Also contributing to a brighter future are improvements in sanitation, hygiene, and the quality of life in general.

Women's education is the most important factor to consider while establishing a family.Women are often married off at young age and given little value, if any, in terms of education in India. That is why they are uninformed about methods of preventing pregnancy and the use of birth control.

Effects of population growth

Some effects of the population explosion include:

It affects shared resources and multiple sectors of the economy. As India's population rises, so does the demand for jobs and labour. However, many Indians are currently unable to find gainful employment due to a dearth of available resources and appropriate employment opportunities. Similarly, the jobless situation is getting worse over time.

Most people dealing with this issue do one of two things:

They leave their home country in search of better employment opportunities, or they stay where they are. The second effect is poverty, which is a direct result of the huge population and the consequently large number of people living in substandard conditions.

Relation between population growth and environment quality

A lot of people are concerned that unregulated population expansion would eventually lead to some kind of disaster for the environment. This is a reasonable concern, and a cursory examination of the circumstantial data demonstrates beyond a reasonable doubt that the deterioration of the quality of our natural resources has coincided with the expansion of our human population. The Anthropocene epoch is a new geologic era that has been designated by some scientists as a result of the effect that the presence of so many people has had on the earth. The human race represents a new geophysical force on a global scale.

However, despite the fact that the size of the population is a contributing factor, the issue at hand is not as simple as counting the number of people.

There are numerous diverse things happening at this time. As important as or more important than the numbers themselves is what is happening inside such groups, particularly with regard to their distribution (intensity, migration routes, and development), consumption trends and demographics (such as age, gender, and income level).

The population reduces capital formation:

In poor countries, population composition affects capital formation. Due to a high birth rate and low life expectancy, there are many dependents. Nearly 40 to 50 per cent of the population is non-productive and merely consumes.Rapid population expansion in underdeveloped countries reduces capital per head, lowering labour productivity. Their income and ability to save decreases, which harms capital accumulation.

Population growth necessitates additional investment

In poor countries, investment needs exceed capabilities. Growing populations require more demographic investment, which limits people's ability to save.These imbalance investment needs and available finances.Poor countries can't invest enough.

Population growth causes unemployment

A fast population expansion means many people entering the labour market who may not find work. In poor countries, the number of job applicants is growing so fast that it's impossible to employ them all. These countries have high unemployment, underemployment, and disguised employment. Rapid population growth makes it difficult for poor countries to reduce unemployment.

Population growth causes food problems

Population growth implies more mouths to feed, which strains food supplies. Underdeveloped countries with high population growth sometimes suffer food shortages. Despite their best efforts, they can't feed their rising population.Food scarcity has two implications on economic growth. Inadequate food supplies cause undernourishment and poor productivity. It reduces worker output. Second, food shortages force countries to import food grain, which strains their foreign exchange.

How this problem can be mitigated

Many variables are at play even more than raw population numbers

Education and policy changes can play a key role in mitigating population growth.

This theory relies on demographic shifts, such as halting population growth, to lessen pressure on finite resources.

When communities have access to sexual and reproductive healthcare, secondary education is encouraged and made available, and women are given the power to participate in social and political life, birth rates thendecline.

Supporting these initiatives and policies should reduce birth rates. As earnings rise in poorer countries, birth rates fall. Richer countries have additional reason to help weaker neighbours flourish.

Incentives based on health, education, or finances have also proven useful in dealing with population issues. It is effective to reward families with two or fewer children financially or to provide free education to single-child families. The perceived value of incentives is debated (such as paying women in India to undergo sterilisation). Critics question whether or not those who accept these incentives are making a conscious choice or whether or not they are feeling financially desperate.

Population can also be controlled by coercion. China has done so before, drawing accolades and humanitarian criticism. No clear answer exists for this morally, economically, and politically sensitive problem.

Better manners attempt to educate people about the consequences of their actions, resulting in a change in behaviour.Individuals and governments are affected. Individuals everywhere, but especially in affluent countries, must rethink their consumption. The use of more "stuff" doesn't make people happier, according to studies. We must re-evaluate what's important and limit our resource consumption. Taking shorter showers, avoiding the use ofone-time plastics, buying less, recycling of waste, and reducing travel may seem insignificant, but if millions do it, the difference will add up.

Governments must adjust environmental policies to protect natural regions, cut down carbon dioxide, and other greenhouse gas emissions, invest in renewable energy sources, and prioritise conservation.More developed countries should help developing countries achieve sustainable, practical development goals.

No simple solution exists. Sustainable futures require all thesesmeasures..

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